Please respond to the Forum questions listed below. You are expected to give complete answers referring to what you have read in the “Lessons”(reading & resources). Reference to, or the use of critical thinking, analysis, what you have learned in previous courses, the media, and in your professional lives is also expected. Define the subject; make references to what you have read, what you have learned elsewhere, and then form a response.
Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 350 words. Please respond to a least 2 other students. Responses should be a minimum of 150 words and include direct questions. When addressing the topic questions, you are to state the question followed by your response. Do this for each question posed.
1) Describe “Smart Borders”?
2) Examine Intellectual Property theft/violations and the economic impact of border security?
Articles for weekly assignment:
Berdell, J., & Ghoshal, A. (2015). US-Mexico border tourism and day trips: An aberration in globalization? Latin American Economic Review, 24(1), 1-18.
Disclosure of information for certain intellectual property rights enforced at the border. (2015). Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc.
Maoh, H. F., Khan, S. A., and Anderson, W. P. (2015). Truck movement across the Canada-US border: The effects of 9/11 and other factors. Journal of Transport Geography, 53. 12-21.
Newel, B. C., Gomez, R., & Guajardo, V. E. (2017). Sensors, cameras, and the new ‘normal’ in clandestine migration: How undocumented migrants experience surveillance at the U.S.-Mexico border. Surveillance & Society, 15(1), 21-41.
President Trump’s Executive Order. (2017). Presidential executive order on establishing enhanced collection and enforcement of antidumping and countervailing duties and violations of trade and customs laws.
Topak, O. E., Bracken-Roche, C., Saulnier, A., & Lyon, D. (2015). From smart borders to perimeter security: The expansion of digital surveillance at the Canadian borders. Geopolitics, 20(4), 880-899.
Walke, A. G., & Fullerton, T. M. (2014). Freight transportation costs and the thickening of the US–Mexico border. Applied Economics, 46(11), 1248-1258.
Written testimony of CBP for a senate committee on appropriations, subcommittee on homeland security hearing titled “strengthening trade enforcement to protect American enterprise and grow American jobs”. (2014). Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc.
National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center. (2011). Intellectual Property Rights Violations: A Report on Threats to United States Interests at Home and Abroad.
Note this requirement – respond to at least two of your classmate’s posts.
Student #1 Erek
To accurately describe “Smart Borders” is simple. A border that is secured by technology vice traditional “brick-n-mortar” methods. However, to describe the current “Smart Border” initiative between the U.S. and Canda is more complex. “In December 2001, Governor Tom Ridge and Deputy Prime Minister John Manley Signed the Smart Border Declaration and Associated 30-Point Action Plan to Enhance the Security of Our Shared Border While Facilitating the Legitimate Flow of People and Goods. the Action Plan Has Four Pillars the Secure Flow of People, the Secure Flow Of Goods, Secure Infrastructure, and Information Sharing and coordination in the enforcement of these objectives.” (DoS) The 30 point plan includes:
#1 BIOMETRIC IDENTIFIERS
#2 PERMANENT RESIDENT CARDS
#3 SINGLE ALTERNATIVE INSPECTION SYSTEM
#4 REFUGEE/ASYLUM PROCESSING
#5 MANAGING OF REFUGEE/ASYLUM CLAIMS
#6 VISA POLICY COORDINATION
#7 AIR PRECLEARANCE
#8 ADVANCE PASSENGER INFORMATION / PASSENGER NAME RECORD
#9 JOINT PASSENGER ANALYSIS UNITS
#10 MARITIME SECURITY AND FERRY TERMINALS
#11 COMPATIBLE IMMIGRATION DATABASES
#12 IMMIGRATION OFFICERS OVERSEAS
#13 INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
#14 HARMONIZED COMMERCIAL PROCESSING
#16 JOINT FACILITIES
#18 CONTAINER TARGETING AT SEAPORTS
#19 INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENTS
#20 INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
#21 CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION
#22 AVIATION SECURITY
#23 INTEGRATED BORDER AND MARINE ENFORCEMENT TEAMS
#24 JOINT ENFORCEMENT COORDINATION
#25 INTEGRATED INTELLIGENCE
#27 REMOVAL OF DEPORTEES
#28 COUNTER-TERRORISM LEGISLATION
#29 FREEZING OF TERRORIST ASSETS
#30 JOINT TRAINING AND EXERCISES
It is important to note also is that the points made also are a big part of protecting intellectual property rights. For example, in point number one ( biometrics) if the rights of the program or design that create that specific biometric identifier system were to be bought by a third party, then the integrity of the security system would be compromised and thereby flawed. The protection of intellectual property rights is paramount against either by theft/cloning or other violations. Since the greater threat comes from the southern border it would only be logical to enhance the security in that area. With the added physical security there is a need for added or enhanced cybersecurity. “Based on fieldwork conducted primarily in a migrant shelter in Nogales, Mexico, we find that migrants generally have a fairly sophisticated understanding about U.S. Border Patrol surveillance and technology use and that they consciously engage in forms of resistance or avoidance.” (Newel, Gomez, Guajardo)
If the technology is compromised then the security system as a whole is flawed and useless against all the primary reason for a border.
Disclosure of Information for Certain Intellectual Property Rights Enforced at the Border. Washington: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc, 2015. ProQuest. 7 Jan. 2019.
Newel, Bryce Clayton, Ricardo Gomez, and Verónica E. Guajardo. “Sensors, Cameras, and the New ‘Normal’ in Clandestine Migration: How Undocumented Migrants Experience Surveillance at the U.S.-Mexico Border.” Surveillance & Society 15.1 (2017): 21-41. ProQuest. 7 Jan. 2019.
Topak, Özgün E., et al. “From Smart Borders to Perimeter Security: The Expansion of Digital Surveillance at the Canadian Borders.” Geopolitics, vol. 20, no. 4, Oct. 2015, pp. 880–899. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/14650045.2015.1085024.
Walke, A. G., and T. M. Fullerton. “Freight Transportation Costs and the Thickening of the US–Mexico Border.” Applied Economics, vol. 46, no. 11, Apr. 2014, pp. 1248–1258. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/00036846.2013.870659.
Written Testimony of CBP for a Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Homeland Security Hearing Titled “Strengthening Trade Enforcement to Protect American Enterprise and Grow American Jobs”. Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc, 2014. ProQuest. 7 Jan. 2019.
Dept. of State “U.S. – Canada Smart Border/30 Point Action Plan Update” Fact Sheet, The White House, Washington, DC, December 6, 2002
Student #2 Jaime
1. Describe “Smart Borders”?
The Smart Deal Declaration originated from a binational deal between the United States and Canada, signed on December 12, 2001. The original foundation of the declaration centered around four important pillars of objectives- “the secure flow of people, the secure flow of goods, secure infrastructure, and information sharing and coordination in the enforce of these objectives” (“U.S. – Canada Smart Border/ 30 point action plan update”, 2002). The goals of the “Smart Border” plan eventually branched off into a 30 action item strategy, developed to enhance border security for both parties while facilitating the legitimate flow of people and goods across the border. The ultimate goal was to join efforts to increase border security by reducing dangerous risks and associated threats of the shared border, without reducing the mobility of people and goods to and from each country respectively. This agreement was developed to strengthen the relationship between the United States and our northern ally, Canada, by combining security efforts to identify national and international threats. Since its implementation, the United States has moved from “Smart Borders” to a more perimeter and shared security approach through the use of border surveillance and digital technology, known as the “beyond the border” agreement in June 2012 (Topak, 2015).
2. Examine Intellectual Property theft/violations and the economic impact of border security?
Intellectual property refers to innovative ideas or creations resulting from human intellect. It is known as one of the biggest and best assets available to mankind as it continually evolves over time. Under the provision of Article 1 Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution, these intellectual property rights are protected under copyright law and fully exclusive to the originator. Unfortunately, the threat to steal these developmental works or creative design ideas for economic gain continues to plague society. Counterfeit goods are a major risk to the safety and security of the United States, as well as its commerce and financial stability. Without enhanced border security, the exchange of illegal or counterfeit goods and piracy will continue to rise, jeopardizing trade secrets, proprietary products, and technological advances. Today, “the theft of intellectual property and trade in counterfeit and pirated goods causes harm to an innovation-based economy by threatening the competitiveness of businesses and the livelihood of workers” (“Record number of IPR seizures in FY17 for CBP, ICE”, 2018). Additionally, with the majority of our daily lives conducted online and on smart computers these days, the increased threat of cyber security continues to escalate, making every American household and business subject to exploitation by our adversaries. This could directly impact our Nation’s ability to safeguard our homeland from a terrorist activity and criminal activity.
Custom and Border Patrol. (2018). Record number of IPR seizures in FY17 for CBP, ICE. Retrieved from https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/national-media-release/record-number-ipr-seizures-fy17-cbp-ice
Topak, O. E., Bracken-Roche, C., Saulnier, A., & Lyon, D. (2015). From smart borders to perimeter security: The expansion of digital surveillance at the Canadian borders.Geopolitics, 20(4), 880-899. Retrieved from http://yw6vq3kb9d.search.serialssolutions.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fsummon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=From+Smart+Borders+to+Perimeter+Security%3A+The+Expansion+of+Digital+Surveillance+at+the+Canadian+Borders&rft.jtitle=Geopolitics&rft.au=Topak%2C+%C3%96zg%C3%BCn+E&rft.au=Bracken-Roche%2C+Ciara&rft.au=Saulnier%2C+Alana&rft.au=Lyon%2C+David&rft.date=2015-10-02&rft.pub=Routledge&rft.issn=1465-0045&rft.eissn=1557-3028&rft.volume=20&rft.issue=4&rft.spage=880&rft_id=info:doi/10.1080%2F14650045.2015.1085024&rft.externalDocID=1085024¶mdict=en-US
U.S. Department of State. (2002). U.S. – Canada Smart Border/30 Point Action Plan Update. Retrieved from https://2001-2009.state.gov/p/wha/rls/fs/18128.htm