Repsond to 4 classmates posts for Psych Course




False confessions are unfortunate occurrences that currently exist in the judicial system. They can result in innocent people getting convicted for crimes they did not commit. Over the years many people have went to prison, jail, and have endured other punishment procedures due to false confession (Kassin & Kiechel, 1996). There are three traditional ways of false confessions: voluntary, coerced complaint, and coerced internalized. Voluntary confession occurs when there is no pressure from the police, and they offer self-incriminating statements Appleby, Hasel, & Kassin, 2013). These are usually done in order to protect someone or receive attention in a high profile case. Coerced-compliant false confessions occur when knowingly innocent people move from denial to confession as an act of behavioral compliance; to escape the stress of a harsh interrogation or because they are led to perceive that confession will prove less punishing than continued denial (Appleby, Hasel, & Kassin, 2013).In contrast, coerced-internalized false confessions occur when innocent people, subjected to misleading claims about the evidence, become confused, question their own innocence, infer their own guilt, and sometimes confabulate false memories to support that inference (Appleby, Hasel, & Kassin, 2013).

I feel as if there is never going to be a plan that will get rid of all false convictions, however I do feel that there are a couple of tactics that could be placed to minimize false convictions. One being making sure all interrogations are video tapped, making sure to record everything from the initial interview to actual confession. Also, incorporating more expert opinion into convictions, having professionals and experts in certain areas can give the courts, juries, and judges more information about the statistical factors and more information on vulnerable populations that are susceptible to false testifying/ confessions (Appleby, Hasel, & Kassin, 2013).


Appleby, S. C., Hasel, L. E., & Kassin, S. M. (2013). Police-induced confessions: An empirical analysis of their content and impact. Psychology, Crime & Law, 19, 111-128

Kassin, S. M., & Kiechel, K. L. (1996). The social psychology of false confessions: Compliance, internalization, and confabulation. Psychological Science, 7(3), 125-128.…


Often time individuals who are in a stressful situation will omit to things that did not occur in order to escape the stressful environment. Kassin, Fein, and Markus (2017) inform us that sometimes innocent people under police interrogation agree to confess as an act of mere compliance. This is very alarming that stress can make one admit to a crime or an event that never actually occurred. In Kassin and Kiechel (1996) study they noted that during interrogations police would often bring in evidence that is not factual to get a confession from the accused perpetrator. Also, Kassin and Kiechel (1996) study showed that when information is presented to people fast paced, it can be overwhelming and they will admit to something that is not factual.

How can we change the way information is presented to decrease the false confession of an innocent person? This learner believes that police should not be able to present false evidence. Although they are on a timeline they should collect all evidence and witnesses report as accurately as possible. Because witnesses often include things that they did not see if they are questioned in front of another witness, it should be part of the protocol that witnesses are questioned one on one. This could cut down on a witness agreeing to something they did not see. With DNA evidence being a great tool that has cleared so many innocent people, it should be the number one tool used to in an investigation and then witnesses next. Also during interrogation, it should be required that a lawyer be present. I also believe that a mental health evaluation should be conducted on anyone who is being interrogated or used as a witness.


Kassin, S., Fein, S. & Markus, H. R. (2017). Social Psychology (10th ed.). Retrieved from:…

Kassin, S. M., & Kiechel, K. L. (1996). The social psychology of false confessions: Compliance, Internalization and Confabulation. Psychological Science (0956-7976), 7(3), 125-128.


Stress is an unpleasant state of arousal that arises when we perceive that the demands of a situation threaten our ability to cope effectively. (Kassin, 2017) The stress and coping process is an ongoing transaction between a person and their environment (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984)

A topic in social psychology that might involve or be complicated by a health or stress related issues is child abuse. Child abuse in the mistreatment of a minor child. It involves a wide range of harmful activities that can be one or a combination of physical, emotional, verbal or sexual actions. It can be in the form of an inaction, such as in the form of neglect. or in the form of an action, such as a physical injury.

There are many causes of child abuse. Although children are not responsible for the harm inflicted upon them, there are many risks factors that can contribute the reason they are abused. Some of the risk factors are childhood disabilities, the social isolation of families, family poverty, the parent’s lack of understanding of their child’s needs, substance abuse, domestic violence and young parents.

Another risk factor that contributes to child abuse is parental stress. This was proven in a clinically study of 123 families, which determined that physically abusive families consisted of parents and children who fall under these risk factors. (Whipple, et al, 1991)

The unfortunate thing about child abuse is that most abuse victims are unaware they are being abused. Another unfortunate thing is that many of the victims are powerless to stop the abuse. Therefore, an intervention on behalf of the rest of society is necessary to afford the victims the help they need. There are laws in place in our society that can help the victim and their family, through counseling and if necessary protective care.

My future profession requires me, by law, to report any suspicion of child abuse to a physician or a worker of a child protective agency. I realize that my action or inaction on this matter will determine if a child will be removed from a potentially harmful environment and placed in a safe-haven, or not. Also, my delaying reporting a suspicion of abuse can postpone treatment for a victim thus lessening a child’s chance of recovery.



Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H. R. (2017). Social psychology (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage. ISBN: 9781305580220.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.

Whipple, E. & Webster. Stratton, C. (!991) The role of parental stress in physically abusive families


Prejudice and discrimination acts against another is one aspect of social psychology that could cause health and stress issues on the individual that is being discriminated against. The individual that is showing a prejudice or discrimination. whether its gender, religion, race, or any reason could be giving off this negative percievance as a way to buffer their own self-concept (Ahmed, Kia-Keating, & Tsai,2011).

According to the stress model discrimination is considered a psychosocial stressor. It is considered a psychosocial stressor because it releases cognitive threats, negative motives, and targets of nasty attitudes and behavior by the antagonist (Dion,2002). The perceived prejudice and discrimination are often unpredictable social stressors, because they are unplanned and discrimination can occur at any time, at any place. This stress model of perceived discrimination has now been supported with several ethnic and racial groups in Canada in research by my colleagues and me, as well as by other studies conducted independently by investigators in other countries (Dion, 2002).

In my profession as a counselor this will be very beneficial information to be aware of and understand. Discrimination and prejudices are acts that affect many individuals and cultures. It is also a very sensitive act that as a counselor I will have to treat in a very sensitive way. Whether it’s someone who is the Antagonist or being antagonized it all applies to someone being affected. There is much research on stress related factors from discriminations that can lead to other serious health issues. Which are all relevant issues in helping an individual in counseling.


Ahmed, S. R., Kia-Keating, M., & Tsai, K. H. (2011). A structural model of racial discrimination,

acculturative stress, and cultural resources among arab american adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 48(3), 181-192. doi:10.1007/s10464-011-9424-3

Dion, K. L. (2002). The social psychology of perceived prejudice and discrimination. Canadian Psychology, 43(1), 1-10.

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